2008 – vol. 2, no. 2
How Can We Study the European Union?
Oana Andreea ION
Abstract: Although the literature referring to European integration has advanced a lot in the last decade, it remains difficult to achieve a concord regarding the causes and the future of the integration process. European integration would be usually associated with intense institutionalized forms of cooperation both economic and political with the purpose to establish a united Europe. The new perspectives are much more interested in problems like process efficiency in making a decision, the daily aspects of life, bringing about the orientation to the governance of these studies.
Keywords: institutional, integration, intergovernmentalism, international, neo-functionalism, EU, nation state, European studies, theories
Kosovo or the Birth of a New State in Europe
Abstract: The new state Kosovo is the final stage of dismemberment of the former Yugoslavia, a province with a special statute. There exists no Resolution of the Security Council of ONU which would proclaim the independence of the new state. There are six countries members of the EU which oppose this independence: Romania Cyprus, Spain, Greece, Slovakia, Bulgaria. These countries have ethical minorities on their territory and they are afraid that such a moment would create a precedent for other ethnic demands in the area.
Keywords: independence, ethnic minority, Kosovo, autonomous provinces, state
Kosovo and the Struggle for the Soul of Europe
Abstract: Kosovo is now placed near Europe’s centre, because here the interests of the EU, of the members states, of the partner and opponent from East, Russia intersect, here a battle field where the European key principles are tested was improvised and the strength of the new European commitment in ensuring pace and stability is evaluated. We can talk about the right of self-government of a nation or of an ethnic nation. The mission of The United Nations in Kosovo will continue to stay on the region affairs management for a period of transition of 120 days, and at the end of this period the EU will assume full control of the stabilizing and reconstruction mission.
Keywords: self-determination, Balkans, diplomacy, Europe, Kosovo, stability
The United Kingdom, an Undecided “Player”
Abstract: The Great Britain always considered herself an insular area in Europe’s neighborhood, keeping tight relations with the European countries, having common allies, but never perceived as being an actual part of Europe. Most of the time Great Britain hasn’t got a policy in conformity with the rest of the member states. EU had been needing the presence of a so called “the devil’s advocate”. The opposition manifested regarding The Lisbon Treaty was probably determined by possible constraints which this treaty would have brought regarding the external relation of Great Britain with third party states, like the USA.
Keywords: advantages, opposition, reticence, USA, Lisbon Treaty
Ratification of the Lisbon Treaty
Abstract: Every country in the EU must ratify according to its own legislation The Lisbon Treaty for it to come into force and for the next elections for the European Parliament to be held according to these new settlements. In the way that the ratification process is presented in this moment, it seems that only in the summer of 2008 the situation will start to clarify and we will know if the Treaty will have a different path from The Constitutional Treaty, becoming just a beautiful memory of the EU reform.
Keywords: European legislation, referendum, European states, treaty
The Democratic Deficit in the European Union
Alisa Elena BARCAN
Abstract: According to Maastricht Treaty, the purpose of European integration is to create an increasingly close union between European nations, in which the decisions will be taken closely to the citizen. However even the most optimistic supporters of the EU admit that the integration process was mostly an elite initiative rather than a people’s movement. This problem of the electorate’s difficulty to directly influence the EU activity is labeled “democratic deficit”, and hadn’t been surpassed, despite the EU’s efforts to give increased powers to the single institution chosen directly by the European citizen, the European Parliament.
Keywords: European citizens, the European Commission, democratic deficit, institutions, European Parliament, treaty
European Parliament – Representing the Citizens versus Following Group Interests
Bianca Mihaela CONE
Abstract: The European Parliament, this name appears exactly with the European Single Act in 1986. It was called initially Gathering, then European Parliament Gathering. Today, the European Parliament’s competences are considerably multiplied and are some of the most important. Among them are included normative competences to adopt normative acts with general character, in cooperation with the Council, budgetary and political competences, which consists in the control of the European parliament over the Commission. The general character of the Parliament negotiation in order to obtain the support of the others in programmed actions.
Keywords: euro-parliamentary elections, citizens, competences, European group, interests, European Parliament, parties
Co-decision Procedure – the Rising Star of the European Parliament
Andrei Alexandru DINU
Abstract: By analyzing the relation between EP and Council we may conclude the existence of an increase of the EP’s role in the decisional process through the angle of statistical and practical results of the co-decision procedure. The cooperation introduced by the EUA, marked the moment of the growing importance of the EP’s opinion in the legislative process. The co-decision procedure supposes multiple stages of negotiation and debate between Council and EP. The successive steps taken by this institution, observed mostly in generalizing the procedure of co-decision actually meaning the reduction of the democratic deficit of the EU, normalization and equalizing the relation with the Council and a step forward in the direction of the bicameral federalism.
Keywords: Council, decisions, laws, Parliament, legislative proposals, codecision procedure
Romania between Europeanism and Euro-Atlantism
Abstract: The European Single Act from 1986 launched the concept of European Identity of Security and Defence. The relations between WEU and NATO have a long tradition and are based on a good collaboration which serves in a clear mode the interests of the EU regarding its collaboration with NATO in the way that it starts on a tradition of the military relations between the two of them. In order to become a trusted partner and an active member of NATO and EU, Romania had to implement a series of legislative’s reforms to harmonize the national legislation with the demands of her membership of the two organizations. NATO and EU are considered the main promoters of pace and security on the European continent and not only.
Keywords: NATO, Romania, European security, military system, strategies, USA, EU, WEU
Evolution of CFSP in Terms of Liberal Intergovernmentalism
Flavius Ionel GAIANTU
Abstract: We have to deal in this kind of interrogation with the tension between the intergovernmental approach on the EU and the federalist one; the first camp consists of people supporting the continuity of state sovereignty in the European space, while the other camp supports the gradual transfer of sovereignty at the super-state level, the EU being a result of the intergovernmental negotiations game in which the EU states tried to maximize their own utility. The Maastricht Treaty(1992) gave birth to the Common Extern Policy and Security.
Keywords: common defence, communitarization, Cuban missile crisis, European integration, intergovernmentalism, CFSP, EU
European Court of Justice and the Problem of Legitimacy
Abstract: The Justice Court is one of the most important EU institutions. This institution has the last word regarding the juridical norms and treaties. More then that, the Court is one of the most visible institutions which can confer trust in the European project or can attract the consent on the EU citizen, having the role to watch over the observance of the European right. Its headquarters are in Luxemburg and it was founded in 1952 through The Paris Treaty. CEJ is formed of 27 judges, one from each state, from which are elected a President and 8 General Advocates.
Keywords: decision, ECJ, European law, justice, legitimacy, Maastricht, treaty
The Democratic Deficit of PE in a Constructivist Perspective
Abstract: The constructivist approach first appeared in the field of international relations. Constructivism is accentuating the role of constitutive theories as fundamentally distinct from the causal theories and the general character of interpretation as a instrument of knowing the constitutive theories. The EP is the only EU institution whose members are elected through a direct vote by each citizen of every member country. The direct vote gives it the largest legitimacy among all the EU institutions. The EP is considered the institution which represents the citizens of the member country and olso a instrument crucial to the reduction of the democratic deficit.
Keywords: elections, constructivism, democratic deficit, legislative initiative, EP