2009 – vol. 3, no. 4
Changes and Innovations in the EU – the High Representative of the EU for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and the President of the European Union
Abstract: this position paper’s goal is to analyze the Lisbon Treaty impact upon the E.U. institutions, by examining two of the newest things brought up by it and their role.
Keywords: Lisbon Treaty, High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, president, institutions, modernization, powers, power, interest, decisions, E.U., cohesion, representation
The Impact of the Lisbon Treaty on CFSP / ESDP
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the modifications brought by the Lisbon Treaty to the Common Foreign and Security Policy and the European Security and Defence Policy. Throughout the paper I analyze the most important developments in the CFSP/ESDP policies – the establishment of the President of the European Council, the creation of the High Representative of the Union for External Affairs and Security Policy, the establishment of a single legal personality for the Union, the establishment of the European External Action Service, the implementation of the solidarity clause and mutual defence clause, trying to point out the impact of these measures on the CFSP/ESDP policies.
Keywords: Lisbon Treaty, CFSP, ESDP, High Representative
The Impact of the Lisbon Treaty on the Common Foreign and Security Policy
Ioana Antoaneta DODI
Abstract: The Lisbon Treaty is one of the most important treaties of the European Union so far. It brings significant changes for the functioning of the Union after 2010, for it’s relationship with the member states and last, but not least, for the way that the Union will be seen by the rest of the world. The reform of the Common Foreign and Security Policy is representative, because it contributes to the European integration.
Keywords: European Union, Common Foreign and Security Policy, Lisbon Treaty, EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, European External Action Service
The Emergence of a New Voice in the International Relations area
Maria Sabina LAZĂR
Abstract: The defined purpose of this paper is to highlight the significant contribution the Lisbon Treaty has had into placing a strong credibility into the EU as a single entity in a multipolar world that is suffering a crisis of globalization. The stringency of a reform on one hand at institutional level and on the other hand at it’s foreign policy level has become the more intense the more the international events required to be taken immediate actions to be dealt with and the more the EU’s efficiency as a single entity has become questionable, seen rather as an amount of foreground distinctive national interests.
Keywords: Lisbon Treaty, leadership deficit, unanimity, incoherence, crisis management, The High Representative, military force
Who Represents the European Union in Foreign Policy Issues?
Abstract: In this article I will present two of the innovations in Common Foreign and Security Policy introduced by Lisbon Treaty, such as the High Representative for EU foreign policy and the permanent European Council President and, in the same time, I will show the impact of these innovations on CFSP.
Keywords: High Representative for EU foreign policy, permanent European Council President, coherence, efficiency
The High Representative of the EU: Commissioner or Foreign Minister?
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to approach and to explain the new born office of High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, set up by the Lisbon Treaty, recently ratified by all EU members. As a result, the High Representative, member of the European Commission, will have a double impact on the European political scenery: on one hand, as part of the European Commission, where this person will occupy the function of vice-president, and on the other hand, as a representative for foreign affairs and security policies of the European Union.
Keywords: European Union, Lisbon Treaty, High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, European Commission, vice-president
“Opt-in”/“Opt-out” Strategies and Their Implications on JHA Communitarisation
Adina Mihaela MIHAI
Abstract: The project elaborated is designed to analyse if the elements that were, at first, part of the third pillar, Justice and Home Affairs, contributed to the communitarization of the EU’s decisional process considering the evolutions stipulated in the treaties, including Lisbon Treaty, about keeping and extending the „opt-in”/„opt-out” principle. In order to achieve this goal, I framed the evolution of JHA in an integration theory – neofunctionalism. Then I have analyzed three sets of arguments, each one having a corresponding counterargument, of the way how the „opt-in”/„opt-out” principle influences the communitarization of the policy, JHA. The conclusion is that this principle affects the communitarization process but, also, it is a middle way for keeping the EU united.
Keywords: Justice and Home Affairs, Lisbon Treaty, communitarization, „opt-in”/„opt-out”, decisional process
Lisbon Treaty and its Impact on the European Parliament
Abstract: Signed on the 13th of December 2007 by all 27 member states, the Treaty of Lisbon will enter into force on the 1st of January 2009. Though, the ratification process was delayed by some members states which asked for some modifications. The ratification process came to an end this year, in November, once the Czech president, Vaclav Klaus, an eurosceptic expressed his acceptance.
Keywords: Treaty of Lisbon, European Parliament, national parliaments, legislative, electoral system, ballot, MEP, parliamentary groups, European citizen
Lisbon Treaty – Political Integration and Coherent External Representation
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to point out the importance of the new path that the EU has chosen thorough the Lisbon Treaty. The most important changes can be found in the CFSP/ESDP policies, where we can see an increase in political integration and a better image for the EU in the world, achieved through an unitary and more coherent position in its relations with international actors. To support these ideas I present the modifications which have been brought to the CFSP/ESDP policies and I analyze their impact in relation to one of the first objectives of the EU, that of achieving political integration.
Keywords: Lisbon Treaty, CFSP/ESDP, political integration, external political representation, coherence
Extending the Power of the European Commission under the EU Institutional System Following the Ratification of the Lisbon Treaty
Abstract: In this article I conduct an institutional analysis on the balance of power existent in the EU, both before the enforcement of the Lisbon Treaty and after. I study the new decisional mechanisms as provided by the treaty, and try to determine the changes in the interactions between institutions, as well as possible consequences of these interactions with regard to the distribution of power among the three legislative institutions of the EU.
Keywords: Lisbon Treaty, institutional system, European Commission, Council of the European Union, European Parliament, balance of power, codecision, voting procedure, qualified majority, unanimity, blocking minority, Joannina compromise, power distribution, legislative procedure, decisional mechanism