Economic Diplomacy in the Context of Economic Crisis
The 2007-2009 crisis brought back in the spotlight the need to employ economic diplomacy strategies in international economic relations. The present paper tries to reply to the following research question: how does the priority given to economic diplomacy translate into practice? The first section focuses on the academic insights in this field. The second section tries to identify some modern practices of economic diplomacy across various countries and suggests lessons that need to be learned. The third section presents a brief analysis on the economic diplomacy recent trajectory in Romania. The final consideration is that foreign and economic policy became more intertwined. Moreover, economic diplomacy activities are more intensive worldwide.
Economic diplomacy, international economic relations, negotiation framework
A New Strategic Objective: Romania, Opportunity for Investments
The purpose of the article is to observe and analyse the causes of the lack of a new strategic objective for Romania, and, following that, to propose a new country objective. At first, the subject of analysis will be represented by Romania’s current foreign policy objectives. Following that, the article outlines common aspects regarding the accession processes to NATO and EU, in an attempt to explain the role that Romania has played and to ascertain whether Romania is currently expecting a new strategic objective to appear as an external challenge. After that, following an analogy with the basic needs of a human being, it will be argued that Romania ensured its sense of security, by joining NATO, and its sense of belonging, by becoming an EU Member State. Having these two senses ensured, the next natural goal for Romania would be to ensure its sense of welfare. In order to do that, Romania should focus its efforts on economy and economic diplomacy. This new goal will not appear as an external challenge, because in the economic dimension even the NATO and EU partners are finding themselves caught in an open competition, and it will require conceptual efforts, vision, creativity and proactivity; it is also possible to require a new institutional design of the Ministry of Foreign Affaires.
Country objective, diplomacy, economy, future, vision
Reconsideration of Romania’s Foreign Policy Objectives – Enhancing the Geostrategic Role in the Black Sea Region
Ramona Emma FRISCHMANN
After the Cold War, the chance of Romania was achieved by two strategic objectives of the Romanian foreign policy, the accession to NATO and integration into the European Union. Thus, Romania was able to escape the area dominated by the “rough power politics” and to take shelter in this “consensus” area, where there are rules and clear mechanisms for adjusting any conflicts with the guarantee to respect the national interest of each member state.
The article presents the overall framework and also analyzes the main issues and ideas that are important and of which depends a good foreign policy. In this regard, it must be reminded and also emphasized the strategic importance of Romania as a country bordering the Black Sea, within the context of its position at the boundary of the two organizations. Therefore, it is argued that one of the main goals of foreign policy should be oriented towards enhancing the role in the Black Sea region as this objective concerns not only Romania’s interest, but also the organisations to which Romania belongs, Romania having the obligation to promote it. Thus, this article analyzes Romania’s Strategic Partnerships in terms of cooperation and bilateral relations in the energy field, in other words in terms of the energy security in the Black Sea. The article also takes into account the initiatives, various formulations and the proposals for projects launched by Romania and not only, in and for this strategic region.
Black Sea region, Energy Security, European Union, foreign policy, Strategic Partnership
Co-Dependant Border Areas in Regional and Global Context. The European Union – A Case Study
This article develops a conceptual framework for the systematic analysis of the European Union as a first step towards building a theory of the role of co-dependant border areas in regional and global context.
The position of the state has changed, at the end of the 20th century, being burdened by the interdependence processes, allowing a state to reach its goals only by means of the cooperation with other states and with the other non-state actors, both at regional level and at global level.
The end of the Cold War, marked by the fall of the Berlin Wall, generated the opening of the borders that was oppressed by Soviet Army. The importance of regions and the mutual communication between borders began to activate again and it created a huge window of opportunity. It is possible that the reshaping of the map had a positive influence as regional integration patterns along the lines of the post-war borders gradually appeared.
Theorizing borders in regional and global context also involves an attempt to understand others concepts, such as: cross-borders, new regionalism, networking system, interdependence and transnational issues. The international actors in the contemporary international system engage themselves in different action across state boundaries.
Co-dependent border, European Union, globalization, governance, interdependence
Long Term Strategies for Romania: Where are We Heading To?
Amira SAWAN, Raluca Georgiana SĂFTESCU
In the last decade, Romania has faced new and challenging experiences, going through a period of change with a broad social, economic and political impact: the accession to NATO and to the EU and the need to adapt to European and Euro-Atlantic values. This complex process requires firstly a look back in order to observe the achievements, but also the failures, followed by a prospective look, the main directions of analysis being represented by the answer to some questions like: How has the Romania’s position within NATO and EU been shaped and structured? What was its role in the critical moments?
The substance of these questions must be kept, but the orientation has to be directed toward the future. In addition, we believe that it is paramount for Romania to capitalize on EU and NATO membership by establishing a comprehensive set of priorities in the relations with Moldova, Ukraine and the Western Balkans, as well as a coherent strategy regarding the Black Sea. These priorities should be directed toward supporting the European aspirations of Moldova by transferring experience from Romania to Moldova in social, political, economic and security issues, relaunching the bilateral relationship with Ukraine to mitigate the Russian influence in the region and to avoid having a border with Russia, strengthening the bilateral and multilateral cooperation in Western Balkans to launch projects for development and regional stability, creating a Romania’s identity as an active player in the Black Sea region, focusing on energy, security and fight against organized crime.
Neighbourhood, Romania, stability, strategic vision
Romania’s Power Strategy
Noemi L. SZABO
Although the concept of power is frequently debated in International Relations Theory there is less attention focused on the power exertion of small states as international actors. Consequently, this article focuses on how to approach different types of power resources in order to achieve strategic objectives in case of smaller entities. Therefore, the case of Romania is presented, regarding the development of a smart power strategy.
Conversion capacity, current international system, power, power resources, Romania, small states
Nicholas Bayne, Stephen Woolcock (editors). 2010, 2nd edition. The New Economic Diplomacy. Decision-making and Negotiation in International Economic Relations. Surey (UK): Ashgate Publishing Limited, ISBN 978-0-7456-7048-3, p. 391