WHAT MAKES ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION DIFFERENT? FROM CONTROLLING NON-LINEAR VARIABLES TO REACHING THE BUTTERFLY EFFECT
Ancuţa Maria CÎRSTEA, PhD candidate | International Relations and European Integration | National School of Political Science and Public Administration | Bucharest/Romania | email@example.com
Environmental policies and programmes deal with multiple variables and specificities that transform them into complex systems, needing thorough analyses and tailored evaluation approaches. The maze of causes and effects that individualize environmental policies consequently affect the evaluation process in practice. What are the causes that make the measurement of environmental policies effectiveness difficult? To how many challenges the evaluation practice needs to respond when dealing with environmental programmes?
Neglecting the complexity of environmental field, questioning data availability and accuracy, working under a narrow geographical and temporal policy focus, confronting a deficient level of understanding of the evaluation scope, not having the right instruments to prevent misleading conclusions, represent just a few potential barriers for environmental evaluators that will be analysed in this paper. It becomes very clear that, especially under the role of the evaluation practice given by the post-2020 programming horizon, environmental evaluation needs to adjust its toolkit in order to be able to analyse complex policy systems, to fundament specific and applicable recommendations and, in the end, to aspire to generate any type of change and improvement in the environmental policy implementation.
Adapted evaluation models, environmental evaluation, evaluating complex systems
THE ROLE OF INTERINSTITUTIONAL PARTNERSHIPS IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: THE CASE OF EDUCATIONAL POLICIES
Albert Andrei Craiu, PhD student | National University of Political Studies and Public Administration | Bucharest/Romania | firstname.lastname@example.org
The theme that I have chosen for that article is at the crossroads of public policies, educational policies and international relationships. It relies in the assumption that is not possible to have public policies at national level if they are not in consistent relation with international regulations, eg. at the European level.Therefore, along of this study, I will try to give a retrospective look at the measures implemented by Romania in the fields of education and youth at international, European and national levels, in order to have to meet the overall orientations of the educational system to the ideal one. To accomplish this, the paper aims to meet the following objectives to identify the changes at international, European and Romanian levels in the fields of education and youth from their mentioning in the official documents of the European Union. I will also try to identify and analyse projects that have had a major impact in both areas through the achievement of the objects pursued at the time of their development and various levels of implementation.The Lisbon Strategy, adopted in 2000 and revised in 2005, has as a common goal the development of the European Union as a competitive, dynamic, knowledge-based, global economy capable of sustainable economic growth with a significant increase in the number and quality of jobs available work, as well as greater social cohesion. The education objectives provided for a substantial increase in public spending in this area, the promotion of lifelong learning, the adaptation of basic skills to the needs of the knowledge society, and better recognition of qualifications. With the 2005 Lisbon Strategy Review, education and training have been among the priority areas of the European Union, emphasizing once again the importance of developing human capital as the main asset of Europe.This is one of the European orientations for policy in education. I will try to find and explain in this article some international directions for policy in education. I will also try to talk about which are the main issues of international education, among which an interesting subject is that of equality of educational opportunities.
Education, educational policy, Erasmus programme, international relationships, interinstitutional partnerships, public policies
THE IMPACT OF THE ELECTORAL SYSTEM ON THE PARTY SYSTEM-THE CASE OF KOSOVO
Valon Krasniqi, PhD | South East European University | Pristina/Kosovo | Valonkrasniqi6@gmail.com
This paper analyses the impact of the electoral system on the party system and political stability in Kosovo. Because of the particular socio-political circumstances in Kosovo, and the post war situation, the transition and the process of democratic institution building was slow and conditioned by the rules of an international administration. After the independence of Kosovo (2008) the United Nation Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) heritage continues to have an impact on the political system of Kosovo. The party system continues to be unstable, both in the ideological sense and in the formation of post-election governments. The Proportional Representation (PR) electoral system with a single, multi-member electoral constituency and reserved seats (20) for minorities in parliament makes impossible to have a stable majority in Kosovo. The main hypothesis of the paper is: The Proportional Representation (PR) electoral systems in Kosovo, for the period of analysis between 2001 and 2017 has a direct impact on the party system, to have an unstable multiparty system. The article uses techniques of qualitative methodology to explore the consequences of the electoral system on the party system in Kosovo, before and after its independence. The conclusions argue that that Kosovo has an unstable party system that negatively impacts on the country’s governance system. Based on the findings, the article argues that there is a need for specific changes in Kosovo’s electoral system in order to have a stable political party system, which will result also in a stable government. We propose changes of the electoral system in Kosovo, from one Multi-Member Constituency (MMC), to be divided into 7 +1 constituency for minorities, in order to have a stable party system, thereby more efficient and durable government.
Electoral System, Government, International Administration, Kosovo, Party System, Stability
ONLINE WEB TOOLS: FORMING AN EUROPEAN COMMUNITY OF LEARNING*
Andreea Pausan, PhD student | Department of International Relations and European Integration | National School of Political and Administrative Studies | Bucharest/Romania | email@example.com
In an age when the information and communication technology (ICT) is part of our daily lives, education changes to accommodate the growing need of users to interact and engage across geographical distances.
This implies both a change of infrastructure to include the new ICT instruments and a change of student teacher relationships as they adapt to the new environment. What online tools to deem most appropriate to use so they convey the desired message is a challenge, partly due to the large offer available, and, partly, due to the lack of familiarity and the hesitance in approaching these tools. This paper is a narrative viewed through the lens of social learning theory of a training course on education web tools with participants from six countries in Europe, sponsored by the Erasmus + Program of the European Union. Its purpose is to present an example of collaborative project aimed at introducing online tools to youth workers.
The five different projects presented at the end, as well as the feedback from the participants, confirm this type of program answers a need of educators to know more about online tools. Furthermore, the incipient stages of building a community were exhibited. This facilitated learning and collaboration, while allowing the participants to create valuable artefacts.
Methods: The paper used the researcher’s journal and observations, artefacts created during the exercises, feedback from the students at the end of the training, and reflexive letters from participants and organisers after the group training was completed. All this information was organized into a narrative that showed what happened during the one-week training, with focus on collaborative learning.
Collaborative learning, community of learning, digitalisation, online tools
* This paper was first presented at the “Investing in Youth for a Sustainable Future” conference held in Skopje, Macedonia, on 4-5 October 2018, by the International Balkan University.
THE APPLICATION AND EFFECTS OF THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION WHITE PAPER ON EU GOVERNANCE IN THE EU GOVERNANCE FRAMEWORK.
Lisa Laura Maria Verhasselt, Postgraduate Student | London School of Economics and Political Science | Luxembourg/ Luxembourg | firstname.lastname@example.org
This article scrutinises the effects of the Commission’s agenda for European governance reforms set out in the White Paper on European Governance (WPG). The White Paper was adopted in 2001 with the aim to establish more democratic forms of governance at various levels, ranging from global to local, and as a response to the often-proclaimed democratic deficit of the European Union (EU), and the citizens increasingly distrust and indifference towards the EU. Another aim is to focus on how possibilities for civil society inclusion have evolved since 2001.
The WPG is scrutinised in a retrospective angle at the hand of the framework for ex-post evaluation. In making an assessment of the White Paper it is useful to consider benchmarks; effectiveness and relevance are the key criteria that should be adopted in order to evaluate a given piece of legislation. The symmetry principle is employed to increase the understanding of the EU’s fight for democratic legitimacy. The findings indicate that more than a decade after its creation, the WPG must be appraised in light of its achievement: it has provided the necessary impetus to reform the European governance agenda.
Democratic Deficit, the European Union, Ex Post Evaluation Framework, Governance, Symmetry Principle White Paper
COSMOPOLITAN PERSPECTIVES ON JAPAN’S OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE
Adina Voicila, PhD student | National University of Political Studies and Public Administration | Bucharest/Romania | email@example.com
The Japanese ODA policy transformation ended, or rather began, with the introduction of the Human Security doctrine in its narrative, allowing the Japanese approach to be encompassed within the international development architecture. However, while having as main pillar human security promotion, the Japanese aid structure maintains a strong view to what regards national interest and its importance in the ODA Charter. This has therefore started up worldwide debates on the actual purpose and rationale of the Japanese aid.
This paper presents a different perspective in what regards development assistance policies and Japan is chosen as case study precisely because of the particularities of the Japanese society and Japanese policy. Under the theoretical model proposed by this paper – taking into account human security as reflecting cosmopolitan ideas – I have investigated the Japanese Official Development Assistance policy. The main assumption is that domestic attitudes have paved the way for cosmopolitan approaches in the Japanese aid policy.
Thus, it was observed that altruism, morality and ethics, elements which have already existed inside the Japanese society long before the beginning of coining the ODA policy, have strongly influenced the current ODA practice of Japan; therefore it would be wrong to assume that the human security doctrine, a result of the convergence between domestic forces and international pressures, is used as a tool to hide national self-interests.
Cosmopolitanism, Human Security, Japan, Morality, Official Development Assistance policy (ODA)
Mihai A. Panu, 2018, Geopolitical Doctrines. The Architecture of Power in the International System [Doctrine geopolitice. Arhitectura puterii în sistemul internațional], Editura Universității de Vest, Romania, 276 pages, ISBN: 978-973-125-624-5
Mihai Murariu, Associate Lecturer | Faculty of Political Science, Philosophy and Communication, West University of Timișoara/Romania | firstname.lastname@example.org
Elizaveta Gaufman, 2017, Security Threats and Public Perception. Digital Russia and the Ukraine Crisis, Palgrave Macmillan, USA, 222 pp., ISBN 978-3-319-43201-4
Roxana Olteanu, PhD Student | National University of Political Studies and Public Administration | Bucharest/Romania | email@example.com