2021 – vol. 15, no. 2
COMPARATIVE CONCEPTUAL PERSPECTIVES ON IDENTITY BORDERS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA
Mircea BRIE, PhD Professor | Departament of International Relations and European Studies, University of Oradea | Oradea/Romania
The identity, be it that of an individual, a group or a community, can generate convergence, but also divergence in relation to the other. The other, dichotomous, acquires the expression of the “beyond”; beyond what is specific to one, to one’s identity. A frontier, be it symbolic or ideological, can thus be identified around identity constructions. Central and Eastern Europe does not only make no exception to this rule, but, in our assertion, it is the space that imposes, perhaps most in Europe, such identity borders.
Methodologically, the focus of our analysis lies primarily on the identity boundaries generated by the specific ethno-religious, linguistic or cultural, but also by the nature of the mental specific to the area. This paper develops in a new methodological construction ideas and synthetic research contained in a previous paper on identity as a border in the space of Central and Eastern Europe. For the purpose of a conceptual clarification and to respond to the methodological desideratum already announced, this paper makes comparative references to the case of the states of Northern Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro or to the case of the Albanians in the Balkans. At a comparative level, the reality of identity cleavages, which oftenly takes the shape of borders, is similar in the Republic of Moldova and in the Balkans. However, a particular note given by the context is kept, namely the specificity and the geopolitics of the former Soviet space in relation to the former Yugoslav one. Identity dilemmas and controversies in the Republic of Moldova, as well as others in Central and Eastern Europe, are determined / fueled by the geopolitical interests of some states / powers that have used them to expand or maintain influences. Here, the boundaries of identity took the form of ideological or symbolic boundaries.
Border; ethnicity; ethno-national identity; identity; religion; Republic of Moldova.
LEGAL ACTIONS FOR MINOR OFFENDERS IN COLOMBIA
Lorena Elizabeth CABRERA IZQUIERDO, PhD | University of Seville, Spain | Faculty of Legal Sciences, Universidad del Atlántico | Barranquilla/Colombia
Minors are responsible facing the law, and therefore are subject to all laws previously established; provided that there’s a crime stated in the criminal code or special penal laws, and that they’re found guilty. However, unlike the actions in the criminal code for adults (Boldov 2002, 1554), the criminal law for minors requires talking about a diminished guilt, taking into account the lower degree of psychological development found in minors (Aguado and Gonzáles 2002, 65-66). The choice of the right legal measure is done in a flexible way, not only to legal proof and assessment, but also considering age, family and social circumstances, character and interests of the minor (Martín 2008, 42) (Martín 2001, 70).
Measures; minors; Latin America.
ADVOCACY ORGANISATIONS IN CEE HEALTHCARE – DOES EXPERTISE MATTER?
Szczepan CZARNECKI, PhD student | University of Opole | Opole/Poland
Rafał RIEDEL, PhD | University of Opole | Opole/Poland
Emilia SZYSZKOWSKA, PhD student | University of Opole | Opole/Poland
The role of expert knowledge in policy-making processes has come to occupy a prominent position in scholar debates. In addition, expertise is a well-recognized resource, facilitating interest groups’ access to decision-makers. It is expected for evidence-based knowledge to be of high importance especially in the healthcare sector. However, we still know very little about the role of expertise in healthcare policy in CEE. The region itself is not a monolith, as it covers countries at various stages of economic, social, and democratic development. This article aims to overcome this research gap by examining the importance of expertise developed and provided by interest groups operating in the healthcare field as well as the extent to which this expertise translates into their access to policy-making apparatus. By examining different types of expertise (scientific, legal, economic, and impact), the Authors provide a unique approach to the topic, presenting data gathered just before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, which undoubtedly revealed the importance, but also the crisis of the approach to expert knowledge.
Advocacy; CEE; expertise; healthcare policy; interest groups.
RECENT INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS IN THE EVALUATION FRAMEWORK REGARDING ITS INTENDED USES. THE CASE OF EU COHESION POLICY APPROACH TOWARDS THE EVALUATION OF PUBLIC INTERVENTIONS
Mihaela IORGULESCU-AIOANEI, Post-doctoral researcher and evaluation practitioner | National University of Political Science and Public Administration | Bucharest/Romania
The article starts from a comparative view of the evaluation strategies used among relevant global organizations, that streamline the general approach towards the evaluation practice. The analysis is focused on the way in which the current provisions emphasize different ways of evaluation utilization. Then, the analysis zooms in on to the developments of the EU Cohesion Policy evaluation framework in the period 2007 – 2027 towards a more effective process. The article is developed based on the following two key concepts: evidence-based policy and evaluation use. Both concepts emerged from the research efforts that have been developed since the second half of the nineteenth century. Looking at the subject from this perspective, the evaluation of public programmes and policies becomes an instrument for evidence-based policy. Together with the expansion in using evidence-based policy approach from the last two decades, the evaluation practice should have gained more importance in the policy-making cycle. Nevertheless, most of the available data shows that the results of the evaluation process are used in general to a small extent compared with its potential of generating change at the level of policy, programme, project or in terms of organizational culture. In this respect, the aim of the analysis is to answer two key questions: Is the utilization phase sufficiently explicit within the evaluation frameworks developed by international organizations? and Are there other implicit factors that have to be activated/mobilized in the evaluation process so as to increase the role of the evaluation in the policy cycle? The core rationale of putting the focus of the article on this subject is given by the fact that this practice involves engaging considerable financial, human and time resources and when an evaluation does not produce the expected effects it becomes a waste of resources.
Evaluation; evaluation utilization; evaluation policy; evidence-based policy.
AN ANALYSIS OF GAMIFICATION IN EDUCATION.
THE NEED FOR AN ETHICAL CODE
Silvia IORGULESCU, postdoctoral student in Political Sciences | National University of Political Studies and Public Administration | Bucharest/Romania
For a still young field, such as gamification, the multitude of research dedicated to the specific domain of gamification in education seems surprising. Some papers are focused on testing the formative and educational values of gamification; others concern its potentially negative impact or propose various ethical codes. The present study aims to combine in a coherent approach these three disparate types of research, starting from the typologies of game elements implemented and the results obtained (positives = efficiency; negatives = risk). Given that (1) the results appear to be rather fragile, contradictory, inconclusive or in a tense relationship with the two typological extremes (e.g. the same mixing of game elements, PBL, is seen as “positive” and “negative” in different studies), (2) sometimes positive results are accompanied by cautious views or by pointing out potential obstacles or risks, (3) the highlighted risks concern broad categories of issues, the ethical perspective and the adequacy to educational-formative purposes becomes extremely necessary. Assuming, however, that academic studies are as contradictory as self-referential, this research seeks to expand the perspective with an additional and necessary counterpoint: a quantitative research aimed at collecting the opinions of potential beneficiaries of gamification in educational context on the necessity and content of an ethical code.
Counterproductive effects; ethical code; ethical risks; game elements; gamification; gamification in education.
THE INTERNATIONAL LIBERAL ORDER
PROSPECTS FOR THE TRANSATLANTIC PARTNERSHIP UNDER BIDEN’S ADMINISTRATION
Alexandra Monica NUNWEILLER BĂLĂNESCU, PhD | Center for Strategic Studies, National University of Political Studies and Public Administration | Bucharest/Romania
In recent years, new security challenges, risks and threats have emerged (including the increasing competitiveness of China and assertiveness of Russia), while domestic political, economic and societal changes have shifted priorities and policies both in the US and in Europe. Under these circumstances, the global security environment has dramatically changed, with the very stability of the liberal world order, established at the end of the Cold War, being at stake. The relationship between the world order and the transatlantic partnership is one of inter-dependency: on one hand, the partnership contributed to the establishment of the current world order and is vital to preserving it, or rather to rebuilding it so that it continues to reflect the Western community’s core values and protect its strategic interests; on the other hand, it is itself shaped by the changes taking place in the world order. To determine the current status and role of the transatlantic partnership, as well as its prospects under the Biden administration (and beyond) I analyse the new security environment, the challenges it raises for the US and Europe and the divergences they generate, and I assess the relative position of the main actors in the new multi-polar system that is beginning to take shape.
Autonomy; great power competition; Joe Biden; transatlantic partnership; world order.
MEXICO AND THE EUROPEAN UNION: A STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP IN TIMES OF GLOBALIZATION
José Guillermo ORDORICA ROBLES | National University of Political Studies and Public Administration, PhD Candidate at the Multidisciplinary Doctoral School of SNSPA | Bucharest/Romania
This paper reviews the way in which Mexico and the European Union (EU) established a strategic partnership. In a globalized world and following the Washington Consensus both signed, in March 2000, a Free Trade Agreement (TLCUEM) which entered into force in October 2000. The good results of the bilateral exchanges plus important events in the world encouraged them, in 2016, to renovate the legal framework of the original Agreement. At the end of 2017, the negotiators finished the revised chapters of political dialogue and cooperation and on April 2018 they reached an agreement in principle on a modernized trade pillar of the EU-Mexico Global Agreement (GA). By 2020, negotiations were over. It is expected that after the trade pillar´s legal scrutiny and translation, it will become part of the three-pronged GA that will also contain revamped political dialogue and cooperation pillars. After 20 years of its subscription, results are promising. Representing 26% of world GDP, the EU is a key partner for Mexico, and Mexico, with 12 free trade agreements signed with 46 countries, for the EU. The cooperation has encouraged exchanges in subjects of common interest, such as the fight against pandemic and gender equality.
Cooperation; free trade; gender; globalization; pandemic; partnership.
THE ROLE OF EMOTIONAL RELIGIOUS DISCOURSES IN DELIBERATIVE DECISION-MAKING AT LOCAL GOVERNANCE LEVEL
Adrian SCHIFFBECK, PhD | West University of Timișoara | Timișoara/Romania
Classical political research shows that the degree of democracy inside a local or national system is measured by the levels of inclusion, effective participation and enlightened understanding: Citizens` participation stands in the center of a democratic society. One form of participation are deliberative processes, supposed to provide welfare, wellbeing and justice. Often, deliberation is accompanied by passion and includes moral and religious arguments, besides rational ones. Supporters of Habermas´ theory of the “ideal speech situation” emphasize rationalistic norms, considering emotions, i.a., as a threat to impartiality. Scholars have approached emotions in relation to deliberative practices considering social movements, policy making, service delivery and user involvement, or health care. The focus of this paper is set on the under-explored research field of emotions and decision making at the local governance level. We look at a public debate from 2007 at the City of Timișoara (Romania), concerning the construction of an Orthodox church in a central neighborhood. Our question is related to the importance of emotional religious arguments for reaching an agreement – to provide welfare, well-being and justice. Research methods are based on discourse and conversation analysis. Results point to a potential significant contribution of passionate religious reasons towards reaching a moral, cognitive and – finally – legal consensus. The necessary conditions for democracy – inclusion, effectiveness and understanding – derive from a morally and emotionally balanced deliberation: consideration for ethical principles, such as cognitive and affective competence, trust and responsibility, coming from all sides involved in the process.
Decision making; deliberation; emotion; local governance; participation; religion.
NEW APPROACHES IN RESEARCH ASSESSMENT – FROM BIBLIOMETRICS TO GOALS-ORIENTED APPROACHES. THE CASE OF RESEARCHERS’ ASSESSMENT FOR HIRING AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA
Ioana SPANACHE, PhD | Postdoctoral Researcher, National University of Political Studies and Public Administration | Bucharest/ Romania
Alina IRIMIA, PhD | Open Science Knowledge Hub Coordinator, Executive Agency for Higher Education, Research, Development and Innovation Funding | Bucharest/ Romania
Adrian CURAJ, PhD | Professor, UNESCO Chair on Science and Innovation Policies, National University of Political Studies and Public Administration | Bucharest/ Romania
In recent years, there has been increased attention given to how research assessment is conducted at different levels – research proposals, individual researchers, research organizations. In this context, the current paper explores existing literature regarding current research assessment approaches, and especially recommendations provided through four reference documents on the topic: the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (2013), the Leiden Manifesto (Hicks et al. 2015), Science Europe’s Position Statement and Recommendations on Research Assessment Processes (2020), and the Hong Kong Principles for assessing researchers (Moher et al. 2020). The aim is to provide a basis for analysing the legislative and normative framework regulating how researchers are being evaluated in Romania for hiring and career development, and then apply it to identify recommendations regarding how the latter can be improved. Some of the recommendations identified refer to aspects such as: the need to explore evaluation arrangements which incorporate research activity related practices, and that measure performance against research units’ research goals; increased focus on qualitative approaches, and on scientific content, as opposed to performance in publication metrics; developing a broader list with indicators, including Open Science and societal relevance related; introducing the principle of transparency; developing a monitoring and evaluation framework.
Open Science; research assessment; research assessment practices in Romania; research careers; research performance.
Daniel Yergin, 2020, The New Map Energy, Climate, and the Clash of Nations, Penguin Press, New York, USA, 541 pages, ISBN: 9780698191051
Marina Corina JIPA | Department of International Relations and European Integration, National University of Political Studies and Public Adminisration | Bucharest/Romania