2022 – vol. 16, no. 1
EUROPEAN INTEGRATION THEORY IN TIMES OF CRISES:
UPDATING ‘THE OLD DEBATE’ WITH A MORPHOGENETIC APPROACH
Özer BINICI, PhD Candidate | Department of International Relations and European Studies | Metropolitan University Prague | Prague/Czechia
This research seeks to contribute to the literature on how to utilize the explanatory approaches of European Integration Theory to understand the broad and complex nature of the European integration dynamics and its politics in times of crises. The recent literature encourages the scholars to remain open to pluralism of approaches and shows that Neo-functionalism provides much convenient account to understand short- and medium-term outcomes of the European Union`s crises decide in comparison to (New, Liberal) Intergovernmentalism and Post-functionalism. Nevertheless, Neo-functionalist theorizing requires further investigation to shed light on its potential to deeply examine European integration dynamics in times of crises. This research argues that Margaret Archer`s Morphogenetic approach provides a convenient meta-theoretical foundation for Neo-functionalist kind of theorizing, especially in terms of spill-over and counter-vailing forces logics, and to engage with pluralism of the approaches within a larger Neo-functionalist framework. For this purpose, the revised Neo-functionalism of Arne Niemann is fused with the Morphogenetic explanatory approach and, the main explanatory concepts of (New) Intergovernmentalism and Post-functionalism are accommodated within a larger Neo-functionalist framework. The research presents explanatory reflections on the post-crisis management of the Schengen regime followed by the 2015 Migration crisis, and its medium-term European Union level governance and regulation outcomes through various kinds of spill-over forces and feedback loops within the nexus of the interaction between supranational, governmental, and non-governmental actors, alongside the rules, procedures and norms triangle of the EU Politics. The research concludes that the Schengen regime has been updated after the Migration crisis as a result of the unforeseen consequences of the earlier institutional arrangements and the entrepreneurship activities of its emergent properties.
EU Crises; European Integration Theory; New Intergovernmentalism; Neo-functionalism; Post-functionalism; Schengen
USING AND EXPORTING DIGITAL AUTHORITARIANISM: CHALLENGING BOTH CYBERSPACE AND DEMOCRACIES
Claudiu Mihai CODREANU, PhD Student | National University of Political Studies and Public Administration | Bucharest/Romania
Over the last two decades, views regarding cyberspace and the usage of digital means by governments shifted from hopes of cyber-utopias to fears of cyber-dystopias, fuelled by increasingly heavy limitations imposed on Internet freedoms and online privacy rights worldwide, a tightening grip of authoritarian regimes on cyberspace, disinformation campaigns, censorship, internet shutdowns, digitally-enabled mass surveillance both online and offline and so on. Thus, the discussion will be centred on Russia’s and China’s usage and export of digital authoritarianism, while also considering steps taken by liberal democracies to counter such actions, focusing on the role of the US and of the EU and its member-states. This paper will start with a literature review regarding digital authoritarianism and an exploration of how Russia and China are using and exporting it. States such as Russia and China are using digital means to bolster and expand their authoritarian regimes, while also exporting digital authoritarianism to other like-minded governments around the world, creating an unignorable challenge for liberal democracies and civil society groups everywhere. Finally, the paper will also address potential courses of action and policies that liberal democracies and international organisations can take for countering digital authoritarianism. For instance, they should promote an alternative model for digital governance and governance through digital means, starting by promoting digital liberties and privacy rights instead of trying to limit them for national security purposes (e.g., the case of encryption). Thus, liberal democracies should respond to digital authoritarianism by further bolstering democracy.
China; cyberspace; democracy; digital authoritarianism; Russia.
FORMATION OF REGULATORY AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR REVITALIZATION OF DEGRADED TERRITORIES IN UKRAINE
Serhii HORBLIUK | Educational and Scientific Institute of Public Administration and Civil Service | Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv | Kyiv/Ukraine
The article assesses the incidence of regional policy on overcoming the crisis phenomena of territorial development in Ukraine. The evolution of regulatory and legal approaches to revitalization of degraded territories before Russian full-scale invasion of Ukraine (2022) are examined for compliance with sustainable development concept. The methodology for identification of depressed territories and the development of state programs to overcome their depressed condition, legally regulated but as yet unimplemented, are discussed. It was found that due to the adoption of a number of laws and the State Strategy for Regional Development for the period of 2021-2027, there has been a move from declaring depressed territories to be policy targets, which de facto were deprived of state support. Attention is focused on the transition to a territorially-oriented state policy of regional development based on the identification of low-capacity areas, and application of special mechanisms and tools of state support. Among the measures of state regional policy in this field, the state support for potential centres of economic growth and integrated projects of developing territories with special developmental challenges is becoming increasingly important. Ways to improve the regulatory and legal framework for the revival of degraded territories in Ukraine are considered separately. The strategic priorities of the regional policy of territorial development are analysed for their compliance with the Sustainable Development Goals, which are the basic guidelines for the revitalization of territories. It has been established that measures to overcome the crisis phenomena of territorial development, contained in the existing regional strategies, are mostly piecemeal. At the regional level, the policy of revitalization of territories is characterized by the presence of single integrated projects, aimed mostly at the recovery of neglected infrastructure facilities. The experience of integrated planning of territorial development testifies to the attempts to balance spatial, economic, social and environmental goals when forming regional policies. In summation, the prospects for the development of the policy of revitalization of degraded territories with the existing legal regulation are substantiated; conditions, under which the appropriate regulatory and legal framework will contribute to overcoming the threats of territorial decline in Ukraine, are outlined.
Degraded territory; revitalization of degraded territories; urban policy; Ukraine.
EUROPEAN UNION – A CASE FOR PRUDENCE WHILE MANAGING IMBALANCES: DEBT-LED ECONOMIC GROWTH
Bogdan MUNTEANU, PhD | The Department of International Relations and European Integration | National University of Political Studies and Public Administration | Bucharest/ Romania
The paper aims to look at the EU Fiscal Framework and Governance from the viewpoints of the challenges to economic growth in a context marked by high inflation, geostrategic risks and commodities markets pressures, of the challenges stemming from the interplay between the fiscal and monetary policies when the monetary policy is constraint to tighten and of the challenges for the national authorities to deploy fiscal measures in a post-pandemic context in which the level of public debts increased substantially and constrain the fiscal space and affect the macro-financial stability. The paper takes into account the considerations and the past approaches at EU level to respond to crises with a view on the fiscal implications to achieve the financial stability, implementing legislative adjustments and working on institutional architecture development. This research takes a look at how to assess and understand the public debts sustainability and explores models and options that are possible to be taken into account by the EU leaders to strengthen the resilience of the EU fiscal framework. The paper concludes that, given the uncertainties caused by inflation, geostrategic tensions, prolonged supply chains bottlenecks, rising commodity prices and diminished fiscal space availability, all these imply expectations for further increases in new government debt instruments issuance, at a moment when the balance sheets in the financial sector (including the central banks) are already constrained by the existing debt.
EU Fiscal Governance; Debt-led Economic Growth; Inflation; Debt Sustainability; Stability and Growth Pact; Fiscal Policy and Monetary Policy Interactions; Sovereign-Debt Nexus.
FROM LONDON TO DUBAI – 171 YEARS OF NATIONAL BRANDING THROUGH WORLD EXPOS (1851-2022)
Ana-Cristina TUDOR, PhD Student | The Department of International Relations and European Integration | National University of Political Studies and Public Administration | Bucharest/ Romania
This paper intends to chart throughout history the foundation and transformations experienced by world fairs – starting with the first-ever international exposition in London in 1851, and continuing up until the present day, with the Dubai 2020 world exposition having been rescheduled to run from October 2021 until March 2022, in order to analyse the role of this type of large-scale events. Special focus in this paper is on the Romanian participation at world fairs, starting from 1867 until today.
In analysing the purpose and evolution of world exhibitions this study applies the theory of constructivism in order to explore the images that state project when they participate at this particular type of event. At the same time, the research examines world expositions as part and parcel of any state’s public diplomacy strategy for its own promotion on the global stage, as it contributes to national branding.
In terms of methodology, for the purpose of research, this paper relies mainly on document analysis, both from open sources and from archives, those of the International Exhibitions Bureau (BIE) and the Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Regarding the focus of the analysis, and in order to offer a broader overview of this topic, some of the more famous world expositions from the past were selected and, in order to counterbalance, some of the more recent ones.
Constructivism; International Exhibitions Bureau; Ministry of foreign affairs; Public diplomacy; World fairs.